Water Level Indicator

The Water Level Indicator employs a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the water level in an overhead tank or any other water container.

The sensing is done by using a set of nine probes which are placed at nine different levels on the tank walls (with probe 9 to probe 1 placed in increasing order of height, common probe (i.e. a supply carrying probe) is placed at the base of the tank). The level 8 represents the “tank full” condition while level 0 represents the “tank empty” condition. When the water-level is below the minimum detectable level (MDL), the seven segment display is arranged to show the digit 0, indicating that the tank is empty, when the water reaches level1 (but is below level2) the connection between the probes gets completed (through the conducting medium – water) and the base voltage of transistor increases.

This causes the base-emitter junction of transistor to get forward biased, this switches transistor from cut-off to conduction mode thus PIN (B7) of microcontroller is pulled to ground hence, the corresponding digit displayed by the seven segment display is 1.

The similar mechanism applies to the detection of all the other levels. When the tank is full, all input pins of microcontroller become low. This causes the display to show 8 and also in this case a buzzer sound is given, thereby indicating a “tank full” condition.

Most water level indicators are equipped to indicate and detect only a single level. The Water Level Indicator implemented here can indicate up to nine such levels and the microcontroller displays the level number on a seven segment display.

So, the circuit not only capable of cautioning a person that the water tank has been filled up to certain level, but also indicates that the water level has fallen below the minimum detectable level. This circuit is important in appliances such as the water cooler where there is a danger of motor-burnout when there is no water in the radiator used up also it can be used in fuel level indication.

In this project the water level indicator is shown using eight transistors which conducts as level rises, a buzzer is also added which will automatically start as the water level becomes full, auto buzzer start with the help of microcontroller. With the help of this project we not only show the level of water on seven segment display but also indicate the water full condition using a buzzer.


To Design Water Level Indicator Project using AVR Microcontroller?

  • A constant 5v power supply is given to the microcontroller and rest of the circuit from a battery.
  • The tank has 9 conductive type sensors (other types of sensors have been mentioned earlier but in our project only conductive type are used) embedded into it and 8 wires of sensors out of 9 are connected to transistors and the 9th is connected to 5v+ supply.
  • The use of transistor is it acts as inverter (i.e. in on state gives low voltage at output and in non conducting state gives high voltage at its output), all transistors outputs are connected to PORTB of microcontroller.
  • Seven segment display is connected to PORTD. It is connected in common cathode fashion.
    The Output for the 7th level is not only shown on seven segment display but also indicated with a discontinuous buzzer sound.
  • Output for the 8th level (i.e. tank full condition) is not only shown in seven segment display but also indicated with a continuous buzzer sound.


How Does it Work?

The operation of this project is very simple and can be understood easily. In our project “water level indicator” there are 3 main conditions:

  1. There is no water available in the source tank.
  2. Intermediate level i.e. either of 3rd to 7th level.
  3. There is ample amount of water available in the source tank.

So let us discuss more about these 3 conditions


CONDITION 1: Water not available

When the tank is empty there is no conductive path between any of the 8 indicating probes and the common probe (which is connected to 5v+ supply) so the transistor base emitter region will not have sufficient biasing voltage hence it remains in cut off region and the output across its collector will be Vc approximately 4.2v.

As in this case the microcontroller is used in the active low region (which means it considers 0-2 volts for HIGH and 3-5 volts for LOW) now the output of transistor which is 4.2v approximately will be considered as LOW by the microcontroller and hence the default value given by microcontroller to the seven segment display is 0 which indicates as the tank is empty.

CONDITION 2: Intermediate levels

Now as the water starts filling in the tank a conductive path is established between the sensing probes and the common probe and the corresponding transistors get sufficient biasing at their base, they starts conducting and now the outputs will be Vce (i.e. 1.2v-1.8v) approximately which is given to microcontroller.

Here the microcontroller is programmed as a priority encoder which detects the highest priority input and displays corresponding water level in the seven segment display.

In this project while the water level reaches the 7th level i.e. last but one level along with display in seven segment a discontinuous buzzer is activated which warns user that tank is going to be full soon.

CONDITION 3: Water full

When the tank becomes full, the top level probe gets the conductive path through water and the corresponding transistor gets into conduction whose output given to microcontroller with this input microcontroller not only displays the level in seven segment display but also activates the continuous buzzer by which user can understand that tank is full and can switch off the motor and save water.

  • Water-Level-Indicator-Flow-Chart

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